Stan V Johnson
There is no more mysterious and amazing substance than water. The explanation of its characteristics is hidden in its molecular and intermolecular structure.
But for us the water is firstly the most important component of the human organism, providing the connection of the outer and the inner world, the transportation of the substances between the cells and the organs. The water corresponds the main medium of the metabolic process as it is a solvent of organic and inorganic substances. The water forms a part of different systems of organic substances. For example, each gram of glycogen (animal starch) contains 1.5 ml of water, and each gram of protein contains 3 ml of water. Such structures as cell membranes, transporting particles of blood, macromolecular and supramolecular structures are formed with the help of water. In the process of the metabolism and the oxidation of the hydrogen, which forms a part of the substrates (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), endogenous "oxidation water" is generated, and its amount depends on the species of disintegrating substrates and the metabolic rate. So, during the oxidation of 100 g of fat more than 100 ml of liquid are formed, 100 g proteins - about 40 ml water, 100 g carbohydrates - 55 ml water. The rise of energy metabolism leads to the sharp growth of the amount of endogenous water.
But endogenous water is not enough for provision of water medium of metabolic processes, especially the excretion in the dissolved form of metabolic products. Particularly, the rise of the consumption of the proteins and respectively their final transformation in the urea, which is removed from the organism with the urine, leads to the inevitable growth of the loss of water in the kidneys, which demands of the heightened flux of water into the organism. When passing to the carbohydrate diet with the little quantity of common salt NaCl reduces the need of the organism in water.
The total amount of liquid in the organism of a human depends on its mass and averages 38-42 liters. Its content in different tissues varies from 10% in the adipose tissue to 83-90% in the kidneys and blood. With the years the amount of water in the organism is lessening, so as in the case of obesity. Women have less water in the organism than men.
The water in the organism forms two water spaces: intracellular (2/3 of the whole water volume) and extracellular (the whole water volume). In pathology there appears one more water space - water of the body cavities: abdominal, pleural, etc. The extracellular water space includes two sectors: 1) intravascular water sector, i.e. blood plasma, the volume of which is about 4-5 % of the body mass, and 2) interstitial or intercellular water sector, containing ¼ of all the water of the organism (15% of the body mass). It is more movable, changing the volume if there is a redundancy or deficiency in water. (Remember this peculiarity, we will return to it when talking about the mechanism of the "summer" cleaning of joints). All the aqua in the organism is renewed approximately once a month and intercellular aqua space - once a week. (And this peculiarity is also very important for determination of the duration of the "summer" cleanings).
The redundant inflow of water leads to its accumulation if few water is exuded, and this shift of the water balance is called hyperhydration. In this case aqua is mostly accumulated in the interstitial aqua sector. The significant hyperhydration declares itself in water intoxication. Water intoxication can be followed by the excitation of nerve cells and the onset of muscular spasms.
The defective inflow or the redundant excretion of water leads to the reduction of liquid spaces, mostly of the interstitial sector. This is called the dehydration. It can be followed by the hemoconcentration, the worsening of its properties and abnormalities of hemodynamics. The reduction of water in the organism to 20 % of the body mass leads to the fatal outcome.
The system of regulation of the water balance provides the main life processes: firstly, the maintenance of the constancy of the water volume in the organism, secondly, the optimal distribution of water between the aqua spaces and sectors. The activity of kidneys, other eliminative organs, drinking water consumption and thirst are referred to the factors of the maintenance of relative aqua constancy.
The significance of water as a solvent is especially important, because all the substances absorbable in the blood or the lymph are preliminarily resolved in water. The liquid transfers the nutrients to the cells and removes decay products, which are removed from the organism by the kidneys and sudoriferous glands.
Besides, the oxidation processes are progressing in the water, and the oxidative breakdown very often goes on with the addition of the water molecule.
Also the water takes part in the regulation of the body temperature: vaporizing, it cools the body and lowers the temperature. The water protects from the heat exhaustion in the hot places, under the sun and during the long passages. Finally, the water enter in the composition of the digestive juices, the fluids of the gastrointestinal tract.
The need of the human in aqua is 2-2.5 liters per day. This liquid comes to the organism from the following sources: 1) the water consumed as a drinking (900-1200 ml) and containing in the food (900-1000 ml) 2) the water that is made in the organism as a result of chemical transformation of the nutrients (300-350 ml (endogenous, oxidations).
The main organs that remove water from the organism are the kidneys, sudoriferous glands, lungs and bowels.
The kidneys remove 1-1.5 liters of aqua a day with the urine. Sudoriferous glands remove 500 - 1000 ml in usual conditions and in the hot place or at hard work the perspiration increases.
The lungs remove 350-400 ml of water by liquid vapor. This quantity is sharply increased when the breathing is getting deeper and quicker, and 800 ml of water can be removed in a day.
The bowels remove 100-150 ml of water with the stool.
The ratio of the consumed water to the removed water makes up a water balance. The water consummation should fully cover the water discharge. It is important for the normal activity of the organism or as a result of the loss of water there will be serious abnormalities of the vital functions.
Stan V Johnson